Article 10 and a human right to access information (Yes, again…sigh)

Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights (“the ECHR”) does confer a right of access to information held by public bodies.

So, at least, says the Second Section of the European Court of Human Rights at §§20 and 24 of its judgment in Youth Initiative for Human Rights v Serbia, Application no 48135, 25 June 2013. The Second Section cites the now well-known chamber level judgments of Társaság and Kenedi for this proposition, at the same time entirely ducking the task of explaining or justifying why or how its decision to create this new ‘human right’ is consistent or reconcilable with the Grand Chamber’s prior judgments in Leander and Roche (both of which rejected the submission that Article 10 conferred any such right).

As avid readers of this blog will be aware, this issue has already been the subject of extensive domestic litigation in the UK. While Lord Brown may have thought he gave the argument that Article 10 confers a right of access to documents its quietus in Sugar v BBC, the willingness of the Second Section to flout two Grand Chamber decisions (and, indeed, not even to cite them when doing so) means that the forthcoming Supreme Court hearing in Kennedy v Charity Commrs (in which a smorgasbord of 11KBW members will be appearing) should make for interesting viewing.

One might have thought (and even hoped) that the Strasbourg Court would have learned some lessons about the dangers of merrily ‘discovering’ new ‘human rights’ while ignoring, and refusing to grapple with, inconvenient prior Grand Chamber decisions from the MT and Greens v UKFrodl v Austria, Hirst v UK debacle. Apparently not.

The judgment also includes a rather trenchant joint concurring opinion from Judges Sajo and Vucinic, in which those legal luminaries effectively say that they think the Grand Chamber decision in Leander is old hat, at least in so far as it concerns this point.

This view, so it is said by the jointly concurring judges, is supported by the fact that another Grand Chamber judgment (which itself did not have much to say about any of these points), Gillberg v Sweden, did not quote the passage from Leander where the Grand Chamber rejected the submission that Article 10 gives a right to access information. Suffice to say that the jointly concurring judges’ further reasoning in support of their position is of a similar calibre.

What is clear from the first sentence of the joint concurring opinion is that Judges Sajo and Vucinic both think that they are justified in inventing this new ‘human right’, and in the process setting the Strasbourg Court up as the pan-European final appellate court for freedom of information matters, by the need to impose greater transparency on former totalitarian ECHR signatory States.

Joe Barrett

Article 10 and Access to Information (again…) – the view from the Grand Chamber

Loyal readers know that the past 18 months have seen a succession of cases address whether Article 10 of the ECHR (the right to freedom of expression) comprehends a right of access to information held by public bodies.

As previously blogged by Julian Milford, in Sugar v BBC the UK Supreme Court (per Lord Brown, in his own inimitable style…) gave the argument that Article 10 could confer a right of access to information exceedingly short shrift. The Court of Appeal in Kennedy v Charity Commission [2012] EWCA Civ 317 (blogged by Anya Proops) then handed down a judgment that, notwithstanding the CoA’s somewhat quixotic decision to grant permission to appeal, appeared to signal that in Sugar the Article 10 ‘access to information’ argument had been given its quietus.

However, the plot simply continues to thicken as the Grand Chamber of the ECtHR has just handed down a judgment – Gillberg v Sweden, Application no. 41723/06, 3 April 2012 – which (while far from a model of clarity) appears to endorse the proposition that Article 10 can (in certain circumstances, the scope of which are almost entirely unclear) confer a right of access documents held by public bodies. The crucial paragraph of the Grand Chamber’s judgment is at [93] where it is stated that:

“…In the Court’s view, finding that the applicant had such a right under Article 10 of the Convention would run counter to the property rights of the University of Gothenburg. It would also impinge on K’s and E’s rights under Article 10, as granted by the Administrative Court of Appeal, to receive information in the form of access to the public documents concerned, and on their rights under Article 6 to have the final judgments of the Administrative Court of Appeal implemented (see, mutatis mutandis, Loiseau v. France (dec.) no. 46809/99, ECHR 2003-XII, extracts; Burdov v. Russia, no. 59498/00, § 34, ECHR 2002-III; and Hornsby v. Greece, judgment of 19 March 1997, § 40, Reports 1997-II).”

It should be noted immediately that: (i) the issue as to whether Article 10 connotes a right of access to documents was very much peripheral to the case, and so the Grand Chamber’s observation is very much obiter dictum (or the Strasbourgian (sic) equivalent); (ii) the passage does not cite the recent Strasbourg case law said to support the proposition that Article 10 confers a right of access to information e.g. Tarsasag v Hungary etc; and (iii) the critical part of the passage appears premised on the assumption that the content of the ‘Article 10 right’ of access to documents is defined by Swedish domestic law (rather than enjoying an autonomous ambit as defined by the ECHR itself).

However, notwithstanding these important caveats, this does appear to be the first occasion on which the Grand Chamber has endorsed the proposition that Article 10 (at least in some circumstances) is capable of conferring a right of access to documents held by public bodies. Could this prompt the UK Supreme Court in Kennedy to reappraise the stance towards the ambit of Article 10 advocated by Lord Brown in Sugar ? Watch this space.

Joe Barrett